Background Reading

The Ranking Digital Rights methodology builds on a variety of international human rights instruments, guidelines, working documents, and principles, many of which are listed below. We also include links to academic sources (e.g., books, articles, and reports) for anyone who seeks a deeper understanding of issues related to digital rights, freedom of expression, and privacy online.

Click on any of the following categories (or scroll down this page) to see a list of resources:

For a longer, global list of resources, click here.

Human Rights, Digital Rights, and Responsible Business/Investment Principles

Privacy & Data Protection Principles

Corporate Transparency Reports

Studies of Company Indexes and Ratings

Existing Ratings/Comparative Analysis Projects on Companies: Digital Rights

Selected Indexes and Ratings of Companies: Other

Selected Indexes and Rankings of Countries: Digital Rights and Other Governance Criteria

Business and Human Rights Organizations

Digital Rights Organizations/Projects/Resources

Additional Books, Articles, and Reports